Table of Contents
Section 1: INTRODUCTION
II Academic Confidence
III Academic Behavioural Confidence
IV Location and Stance of the Study: Impact Statement
1.2 Research Design and Methodological Overview
I Background: The preceding small-scale enquiry
II Structure and Process; The espistemological position of the enquiry
1.3 Research Importance
1.4 Research questions and hypotheses
1. Dyslexia is a phonological processing disturbance
2. Dyslexia is attributable to visual disturbances
3. Dyslexia is a rapid auditory processing disturbance
4. Dyslexia results from a mildly dysfunctional cerebellum
5. Dyslexia is a manifestation of natural human neuro-diversity
6. Dyslexia is a multi-factorial information processing difference
VIII Dyslexia - summary
1. An overview of Social Cognitive Theory
2. Self-efficacy in social cognitive theory and in learning
3. Dimensions of self-efficacy
4. Task/domain specificity
5. Mediating processes in learning (academic) self-efficacy
1. Historical development of ABC
2. Recent research using the ABC Scale
Section 3: RESEARCH DESIGN - Methodology and Methods
3.2 Research Participants - groups and subgroups
3.3 Data Collection
II Questionnaire design rationales
1. Demographic data
2. Quantitative data
1 The Academic Behavioural Confidence Scale
2.1 Six psychometric scales
2.2 The Dyslexia Index (Dx) Profiler
3. Qualitative data
4. Questionnaire Pilot
3.5 Data Reduction
3.6 Developing the Dyslexia Index Profiler
I Background and Rationale
II Establishing the Dyslexianess Continuum
III Designing the Dx Profiler
IV Validating the Dx Profiler using a small-scale enquiry
1. Rationale, methods and processes
2. Recruitment of participants
4. Results and Outcomes
6. Generating the Dyslexia Index
7. Concluding summary
Section 4: RESULTS and ANALYSIS
II Analysing quantitative data - Rationales
1. Internal consistency (reliability) - Cronbach's ɑ
2. Effect sizes
3. Null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST); ANOVA
4. Dimension reduction
5. Multiple regression analysis
III Analysing qualitative data - Rationales
1. Distribution by gender
2. Distribution by domicile
3. Distribution by study level
II How students with dyslexia learned of their dyslexia
III Dyslexia Index
1. Internal reliability of the Dx Profiler - Dx20, Dx16 Scales
2. Dx Profiler distributions and basic statistics
3. Setting boundary values for Dx
IV Academic Behavioural Confidence
1. Internal reliability of the ABC Scales
2. Difference in mean ABC values
4.4 Relating results to hypotheses
4.5 Further analysis: Dimension reduction
I Overview - applying dimension reduction to the ABC Scale and the Dx
1. Assumptions and preliminary work
2. Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulations
II PCA on Academic Behavioural Confidence
III PCA on Dyslexia Index
IV Comparing ABC Factor means
4.6 Applying multiple regression analysis
Section 5: DISCUSSION
5.1 Context of the enquiry
I Summary overview
5.2 Summary of the outcomes
I Composition of the datapool
II Prevalence of dyslexia in this current study
III The relationship between dyslexia-ness and academic confidence
IV Diagnosing dyslexia: does this impact significantly on academic
Section 6: CONCLUDING COMMENTARIES AND REFLECTIONS
I Scale liimitations
II Data collection, sampling and datapool limitations; measurement issues
Section 7: REFERENCES
Section 8: APPENDICES
8.1 The Research Questionnaire
8.2 Ethics approval documentation
List of Figures
Process chain indicating components of the cerebellar deficit theory of dyslexia (adapted from Nicholson et al., 2001, p510).
Competing/contributing factors which may constitute a dyslexic profile (adapted from Fletcher, 2009, p511).
Conditional relationships between self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies (adapted from Bandura, 1997, p22).
Figure 5: Illustrating a contradictory, uni-directional relationship from outcome expectancies to behaviour (adapted from Williams, 2010, p420).
Summary of components and factors leading from self-efficacy beliefs to outcome expectancy (summarized from Bandura, 1997a, p23-26).
Figure 24 (not shown):
Research Ethics Review Form A.
Figure 25 (not shown):
Ethics Sub-Committee request for research clarification.
Figure 26 (not shown):
Response to request for research clarification.
Figure 27 (not shown):
Middlesex University Ethics Approval Document
Figure 28 (not shown):
Risk Assessment Form FRA1
List of Tables
Dimensions and components of academic self-concept, academic self-efficacy and Academic Behavioural Confidence.
Demographic distribution of Test, Base and Control subgroups by home domicile, gender and study level.
Rotated component matrix for ABC24 and ABC17 Scales (Sander & Sanders) showing factor loadings, and which items were removed as redundant from the ABC24 Scale (x).
Rotated component matrix for the locally derived ABC21-L and ABC17-L Scales showing factor loadings, and which items were removed as redundant from the ABC24 Scale (x).
Factor loadings for 2-factor and 3-factor solutions of PCA on the Dx20 Profiler (* dimension with revers-coded data)..
Comparison of ABC Factor MEans for all ABC Scales; subgroups established from Dx20 and Dx16 Profiler Scales.
Effect size differences in ABC Factor Means between non-dyslexic (ND) and dyslexic (DI) groups and between Test and Baase, and Test and Control subgroups when defined by Dx20 outputs.
Effect size differences in ABC Factor Means between non-dyslexic (ND) and dyslexic (DI) groups and between Test and Baase, and Test and Control subgroups when defined by Dx16 outputs.
Values of R-squared for simple, linear regressions for all permutations of ABC and Dx Profiler Scales.
Comparisons of mean ABC24 between observed and expected values according to multiple regression models I-IV.
List of Abbreviations
Academic Behavioural Confidence
Academic Confidence Scale
Attention Deficit Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education
British Dyslexia Association
Best Resources for Achievement and Intervention re Neurodiversity in Higher Education
Cerbellar Deficity Theory
Dyslexia Adult Screening Test
Disabled Students' Allowance
Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulation
Higher Education Statistics Agency
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screener
Master of Science
Null Hypothesis Significance Test
Principal Component Analysis
Quality and Assurance Agency for Higher Education
Questionnaire Response Identifier
Research Group DI - students with identified dyslexia
Research Group DNI - students with quasi-dyslexia
Research Group ND - students with no identified dyslexia
Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults
Social Cognitive Theory
Smart Learning Environment
Speech Sound Disorder
Short Term Memory
Teaching Excellence Framework
Universal Design for Learning
Virtual Learning Environment
World Federation of Neurology
York Adult Assessment - Revised